A pair of terminals through which a current may enter or leave a network is known as a port. Two-terminal devices or elements (such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors) result in one-port networks. Most of the circuits we have dealt with so far are two-terminal or one-port circuits, represented
in Fig. 1(a).
Fig. 1: (a) One-port network,
(b) two-port network.
We have considered the voltage across or current through
a single pair of terminals—such as the two terminals of a resistor, a capacitor, or an inductor. We have also studied four-terminal or two-port circuits involving op amps, transistors, and transformers, as shown in Fig. 1(b). In general, a network may have n ports. A port is an access to the network and consists of a pair of terminals; the current entering one terminal leaves through the other terminal so that the net current entering the port equals zero.
In this chapter, we are mainly concerned with two-port networks (or, simply, two-ports).
A two-port network is an electrical network with two separate ports for input and output.
Thus, a two-port network has two terminal pairs acting as access points. As shown in Fig. 1(b), the current entering one terminal of a pair leaves the other terminal in the pair. Three-terminal devices such as transistors can be configured into two-port networks.
Our study of two-port networks is for at least two reasons. First,
such networks are useful in communications, control systems, power systems, and electronics. For example, they are used in electronics to model transistors and to facilitate cascaded design. Second, knowing the parameters of a two-port network enables us to treat it as a “black box” when embedded within a larger network.
To characterize a two-port network requires that we relate the terminal quantities $V_1$, $V_2$, $I_1$, and $I_2$ in Fig. 1(b), out of which two are
independent. The various terms that relate these voltages and currents are called parameters. Our goal in this chapter is to derive six sets of
. We will show the relationship between these parameters and how two-port networks can be connected in series, parallel, or
cascade. As with op amps, we are only interested in the terminal behavior of the circuits. And we will assume that the two-port circuits contain
no independent sources, although they can contain dependent sources.
Finally, we will apply some of the concepts developed in this chapter to the analysis of transistor circuits and synthesis of ladder networks.
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