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What is Oersted's Law? Oersted's Law states that when a steady electric current passes through a wire it creates a magnetic field around it. Who developed Oersted's Law? Danish physicist Hans Christian Oersted (1777-1851), investigated and found the mathematical law which governs how strong the field was, which is now called Oersted's Law. When did Oersted began to investigate? In 1800, Alessandro Volta invented the voltaic pile, the first electrical battery. The following year, in 1801 Oersted began to investigate the nature of electricity and to conduct his first electrical experiments which resulted in Oersted's Law of electromagnetics. How did oersted discover electromagnetism? In 1820, while ...
A current-carrying conductor produces a magnetic field around it. i.e. behaves like a magnet and exerts a force when a magnet is placed in its magnetic field. Similarly, a magnet also exerts equal and opposite force on the current-carrying conductor. The direction of this force can be determined using Fleming's left-hand rule. Magnetic Force on a single Current-Carrying Conductor Electric current is an ordered movement of charge. Because charges ordinarily cannot escape a conductor, the magnetic force on charges moving in a conductor is transmitted to the conductor itself. A current-carrying wire in a magnetic field must, therefore, experience a force due ...
Although the keyboard and the mouse are the input devices that people use most often, there are many other ways to input data into a computer. Sometimes the tool is simply a matter of choice. Some users just prefer the feel of a trackball over a mouse. In many cases, however, an ordinary input device may not be the best choice. In a dusty factory or warehouse, for example, a standard keyboard or mouse can be damaged if it becomes clogged with dirt. Grocery checkout lines would slow down dramatically if cashiers had to manually input product codes and prices. In these environments, specialized input ...
Most input devices are designed to be used by hand. Even specialized devices like touch screens enable the user to interact with the system by using his or her fingertips. Unlike keyboards and mice, many of these input devices are highly intuitive and easy to use without special skills or training. The followings are different types of computer input devices designed to be used by hand: Pens Touch Screens Game Controllers ...
Pen-based systems—including many tablet PCs, personal digital assistants, and other types of handheld computers—use a pen for data input (see Fig. 1). This device is sometimes called a stylus. You hold the pen in your hand and write on a special pad or directly on the screen. You also can use the pen as a pointing device, like a mouse, to select commands by tapping the screen. You might think that pen-based systems would be a handy way to enter text into the computer for word processing. In reality, developers have had a great deal of trouble perfecting the technology so that it deciphers people’s handwriting ...
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Applying mesh analysis to circuits containing current sources (dependent or independent) may appear complicated. But it is actually much easier than what we encountered in the previous section, because the presence of the current sources reduces the number of equations. Consider the following two possible cases. CASE 1 When a current source exists only in one mesh: Consider the circuit in [Fig. 1], for example. We set $i_2 = -5 A$ and write a mesh equation for the other mesh in the usual way, that is, $$-10 + 4i_1 + 6(i_1 - i_2) = 0$$ using $i_2=-5A$ in the above equation, $$ i_1 = -2 A$$ Fig. 2: ...
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Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications is arguably the origin of most high technology as we know it today. Based on fundamental principles from mathematics and physics, electrical engineering covers but not limited to the following fields: ...
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Since temperature can have such a pronounced effect on the resistance of a conductor, it is important that we have some method of determining the resistance at any temperature within operating limits. An equation for this purpose can be obtained by approximating the curve (in Fig. 1 ) by the straight dashed line that intersects the temperature scale at $-234.5℃$. Although the actual curve extends to absolute zero ($-273.15℃$, or $0 K$), the straight-line approximation is quite accurate for the normal operating temperature range. At two temperatures $T_1$ and $T_2$, the resistance of copper is $R_1$ and $R_2$, respectively, as indicated on the curve. Using a property of ...
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In Chapter 8 ("Capacitors"), we found that there are occasions when the circuit does not have the basic form of [Fig. 1]. The same is true for inductive networks. Again, it is necessary to find the Thevenin equivalent circuit before proceeding in the manner described in this chapter. Consider the following example. Example 1: For the network of [Fig. 2]: a. Find the mathematical expression for the transient behavior of the current iL and the voltage $v_L$ after the closing of the switch ($I_i = 0 mA$). b. Draw the resultant waveform for each. Fig. 2: For Example 1. Solution: a. Applying Thevenin's theorem to the $80mH$ inductor ...
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Thus far, the analysis of series circuits has been limited to a particular frequency. We will now examine the effect of frequency on the response of an RC series configuration such as that in [Fig. 1]. The magnitude of the source is fixed at 10 V, but the frequency range of analysis will extend from zero to 20 kHz. Let us first determine how the impedance of the circuit $Z_T$ will vary with frequency for the specified frequency range of interest. Before getting into specifics, however, let us first develop a sense for what we should expect by noting the impedance-versus-frequency curve of each element, as drawn in ...
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Georg Simon Ohm (1787-1854), a German physicist, in 1826 experimentally determined the most basic law relating voltage and current for a resistor. Ohm's work was initially denied by critics.
Born of humble beginnings in Erlangen, Bavaria, Ohm threw himself into electrical research. His efforts resulted in his famous law. He was awarded the Copley Medal in 1841 by the Royal Society of London. In 1849, he was given the Professor of Physics chair by the University of Munich. To honor him, the unit of resistance was named the ohm.
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Andre-Marie Ampere was a French physicist and mathematician who was one of the founders of the science of classical electromagnetism. His name endures in everyday life in the ampere, the unit for measuring electric current.
On September 18, 1820, introduced a new field of study, electrodynamics, devoted to the effect of electricity in motion, including the interaction between currents in adjoining conductors and the interplay of the surrounding magnetic fields. Constructed the first solenoid and demonstrated how it could behave like a magnet (the first electromagnet). Suggested the name galvanometer for an instrument designed to measure current levels.
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Leon Charles Thevenin was a French telegraph engineer who worked on Ohm's law and extended it to the analysis of complicated electrical networks. He is remembered today almost entirely for one small piece of work. His theorem, published in 1883, was based on his study of Kirchhoff's Laws and is found in every basic textbook on electrical circuits. It has made his name familiar to every student of electrical circuits and to every electrical and electronics engineer.
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English scientist, physicist and chemist Michael Faraday is known for his many experiments that contributed greatly to the understanding of electromagnetism. Faraday, who became one of the greatest scientists of the 19th century, began his career as a chemist. His major contribution, however, was in the field of electricity and magnetism . He was the first to produce an electric current from a magnetic field, invented the first electric motor and dynamo.
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Count Alessandro Volta was a Italian scientist who contributed in the development of an electrical energy source from chemical action in 1800.
For the first time, electrical energy was available on a continuous basis and could be used for practical purposes. He also developed the first condenser known today as the capacitor. He has invited to Paris to demonstrate the voltaic cell to Napoleon. The International Electrical Congress meeting in Paris in 1881 honored his efforts by choosing the volt as the unit of measure for electromotive force.
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