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#### Importance of Computers in Health Care

Pay a visit to your family doctor or the local hospital, and you'll find yourself surrounded by computerized equipment of all kinds. Computers, in fact, are making health care more efficient and accurate while helping providers bring down costs. Many different health care procedures now involve computers, from ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, to laser eye surgery and fetal monitoring (see Fig. 1). Surgeons now can use robotic surgical devices to perform delicate operations, and even to conduct surgeries remotely. New virtual-reality technologies are being used to train new surgeons in cutting-edge techniques, without cutting an actual patient. But not all medical computers arc so high-tech.

#### Importance of Computers in Government

Not only are governments big consumers of technology, but they help to develop it as well. As you will see in chapter 8, "The Internet" the U.S. government played a key role in developing the Internet. Similarly, NASA has been involved in the development of computer technologies of all sorts. Today, computers play a crucial part in nearly every government agency: Â» Population. The U.S. Census Bureau was one of the first organizations to use computer technology, recruiting mechanical computers known as âdifference engines" to assist in tallying the American population in the early 20th century. Â» Taxes. Can you imagine trying to calculate Americansâ tax bills without the

#### Importance of Computers in Industry

Today, enterprises use different kinds of computers in many combinations. A corporate headquarters may have a standard PC-based network, for example, but its production facilities may use computer controlled robotics to manufacture products. Here are just a few ways computers are applied to industry: Â» Design. Nearly any company that designs and makes products can use a computer-aided design or computer-aided manufacturing system in their creation (see Fig. 1). Â» Shipping. Freight companies need computers to manage the thousands of ships, planes, trains, and trucks that are moving goods at any given moment. In addition to tracking vehicle locations and contents, computers can manage maintenance, driver schedules, invoices and billing, and many

#### Importance of Computers in Small Business

Many of todayâs successful small companies and businesses simply could not exist without computer technology. Each year, hundreds of thousands of individuals launch small businesses based from their homes or in small-office locations. They rely on inexpensive computers and software not only to perform basic work functions, but to manage and grow their companies. These tools enable business owners to handle tasksâsuch as daily accounting chores, inventory management, marketing, payroll, and many othersâthat once required the hiring of outside specialists (see Fig). As a result, small businesses become more self-sufficient and reduce their operating expenses.

#### Importance of Computers in Education

More and more schools are adding computer technology to their curricula, not only teaching pure computer skills, but incorporating those skills into other classes. Students may be required to use a drawing program, for example, to draw a plan of the Alamo for a history class, or use spreadsheet software to analyze voter turnouts during the last centuryâs presidential elections. Educators see computer technology as an essential learning requirement for all students, starting as early as preschool. Even now, basic computing skills such as keyboarding, coding, gaming, are being taught in elementary school classes (see Fig. 1). In the near future, high school graduates will enter college not
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#### Branches of Electrical Engineering

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Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications is arguably the origin of most high technology as we know it today. Based on fundamental principles from mathematics and physics, electrical engineering covers but not limited to the following fields:

#### Ohms Law for Magnetic Circuits

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Recalling the equation introduced for Ohm's law for electric circuits. $$\text{Effect} = {\text{cause} \over \text{opposition}}$$ The same equation can be applied for magnetic circuits. For magnetic circuits, the effect desired is the flux $\Phi$. The cause is the magnetomotive force (mmf) , which is the external force (or "pressure") required to set up the magnetic flux lines within the magnetic material. The opposition to the setting up of the flux $\Phi$ is the reluctance $S$. Substituting, we have $$\bbox[10px,border:1px solid grey]{\Phi = {m.m.f \over S}} \tag{1}$$ The magnetomotive force is proportional to the product of the number of turns around the core

#### Frequency Response of the RC Circuit

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Thus far, the analysis of series circuits has been limited to a particular frequency. We will now examine the effect of frequency on the response of an R-C series configuration such as that in Fig. 1. The magnitude of the source is fixed at 10 V, but the frequency range of analysis will extend from zero to 20 kHz. Let us first determine how the impedance of the circuit $Z_T$ will vary with frequency for the specified frequency range of interest. Before getting into specifics, however, let us first develop a sense for what we should expect by noting the impedance-versus-frequency curve of each element, as drawn in Fig.

#### Transformer

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Chapter 11 discussed the self-inductance of a coil. We shall now examine the mutual inductance that exists between coils of the same or different dimensions. Mutual inductance is a phenomenon basic to the operation of the transformer, an electrical device used today in almost every field of electrical engineering. This device plays an integral part in power distribution systems and can be found in many electronic circuits and measuring instruments. In this chapter, we will discuss three of the basic applications of a transformer: to build up or step down the voltage or current, to act as an impedance matching device, and to isolate

#### Mutual Inductance

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A transformer is constructed of two coils placed so that the changing flux developed by one will link the other, as shown in Fig. 1. This will result in an induced voltage across each coil. To distinguish between the coils, we will apply the transformer convention that the coil to which the source is applied is called the primary, and the coil to which the load is applied is called the secondary. For the primary of the transformer of Fig. 1, an application of Faraday's law will result in $$\bbox[10px,border:1px solid grey]{e_p = N_p { d \phi \over dt}} \,\, \text{(volts, V)} \tag{1}$$ revealing